Robert Chambers (Author of Rural Development)Robert^^Chambers
Since the 1980s, he has been one of the leading advocates for putting the poor, destitute and marginalised at the centre of the processes of development policy. In particular he argues they should be taken into account when the development problem is identified, policy formulated and projects implemented. He popularised within development circles such phrases as putting the last first and stressed the now generally accepted need for development professionals to be critically self-aware. The widespread acceptance of a participatory approach is in part due to his work. This includes participatory rural appraisal.
Robert Chambers and G.R. Conway provided the first elaborated definition of the concept of sustainable livelihoods which reads:
a livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the next generation; and which contributes net benefits too there livelihoods at the local and global levels and in the short and long term
Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): Analysis of experience?
Participatory rural appraisal PRA is an approach used by non-governmental organizations NGOs and other agencies involved in international development. The approach aims to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of rural people in the planning and management of development projects and programmes. PRA can be described as a family of approaches, methods and behaviours that enable people to express and analyse the realities of their lives and conditions, to plan themselves what action to take, and to monitor and evaluate the results.
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Jump to navigation. Brief Description: The purpose of this manual is to familiarize users with Rural Rapid Appraisal RRA and Participatory Rural Appraisal PRA methods, demonstrate the applicability of these methods, and encourage the rigorous application of the methods to obtain the best results. The term RRA is used here to refer to a discrete study or series of studies in one or more communities, during which a multidisciplinary team of researchers looks at a set of issues that are clearly defined by the study objectives. The emphasis in PRA is often not so much on the information as it is on the process and seeking ways to involve the community in planning and decision making. Uses: RRA and PRA will gather information to provide insight about people and their communities to enable projects to:. Number of Staff Required: In the case of an RRA, the research team may involve people principally from outside the community project staff, partners, relevant technical specialists.
Participatory rural appraisal PRA is an approach used by non-governmental organizations NGOs and other agencies involved in international development. The approach aims to incorporate the knowledge and opinions of rural people in the planning and management of development projects and programmes. The philosophical roots of participatory rural appraisal techniques can be traced to activist adult education methods such as those of Paulo Freire and the study clubs of the Antigonish Movement. Robert Chambers , a key exponent of PRA, argued that the approach owes much to "the Freirian theme, that poor and exploited people can and should be enabled to analyze their own reality. By the early s, there was growing dissatisfaction among development experts with both the reductionism of formal surveys, and the biases of typical field visits. In , Robert Chambers, a Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies UK , used the term rapid rural appraisal RRA to describe techniques that could bring about a "reversal of learning", to learn from rural people directly.
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